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sábado, 13 de noviembre de 2010

¿Comunidad académica o Sociedad académica?

Existe en las universidades (al igual que en colegios y escuelas) la inveterada costumbre de auto referirse como comunidad académica, concepto que muchos insisten en sostener pese a que aceptan que las condiciones sociales y políticas son cambiantes y que, en el fondo, lo que debería buscarse es continuar construyendo el proyecto inconcluso de la Modernidad. Pienso que la idea es entender que habitamos un espacio diverso, plural, complejo, variable, incierto, por lo que a todas luces, me parece que es conveniente aceptar que una universidad es una sociedad abierta. De ahí que se me haya escuchado decir que una universidad (al igual que los colegios y escuelas) es una Sociedad académica, una Sociedad universitaria. No sobra advertir que esto, por supuesto, está lejos de ser un simple capricho lingüístico.


De todas maneras, así unos valoremos más la categoría de sociedad y otros la de comunidad, es fácil caer en la cuenta que muchos terminamos enunciando tal oposición con ambos términos de manera indistinta. Y creo que se los aprendimos a pensadores como Karl Popper quien refiere los conceptos de Sociedad Abierta y Sociedad Cerrada; a Ferdinand Töennies cuando diserta sobre Comunidad y Sociedad; a Max Weber quien habla de Sociedad Tradicional y Sociedad Moderna; a Emile Durkheim que piensa desde la Solidaridad Orgánica y Solidaridad Mecánica; a Martín Buber que lo hace desde la Comunidad de Sangre y Comunidad de Elección; y habría que leer a Hebert Spencer, quien se refiere a la Sociedad Homogénea y Sociedad Heterogénea, para citar sólo algunos casos.

Por ejemplo, dice Weber que el concepto de comunidad corresponde a un tipo ideal: una relación es comunal, arguye, en la medida en que está basada en el sentimiento enteramente subjetivo de pertenencia mutua de las partes, caso de una familia, de un barrio, de una parroquia, de un sindicato... Expone Weber, además, que por el contrario una sociedad se apoya sobre un ajuste de intereses que están fundamentados en la racionalidad, más que en una identificación emotiva; se trata de una sociedad abierta.

Por su parte, H. Bergson,  cree que una sociedad tiene gobiernos tolerantes que responden a los deseos e inquietudes de los ciudadanos a partir del establecimiento de sistemas políticos transparentes y flexibles; de igual manera, se comprende que ni quienes gobiernan ni los ciudadanos mismos son autoritarios, y ambos entienden que el conocimiento pertenece a todos; no aceptan los feudos. La libertad y los derechos son parte constitutiva de una sociedad abierta, esto es, de una universidad (al igual que de colegios y escuelas).

Popper, piensa que la sociedad abierta es aquella en la que los individuos sienten la necesidad de asumir decisiones personales, a diferencia de las comunidades tribales (valga de alguna manera la redundancia), dominadas por los parentescos, amiguismos y familiaridades. Éstas no diferencian entre normas tradicionales o hábitos enmarcados en parámetros naturales, y las leyes construidas por los ciudadanos sobre la base de la responsabilidad creativa y la justicia, sumados a la necesidad de responder moralmente por las actuaciones (tal cual ocurre en una universidad debido a su esencia).

En su texto denominado Aportes al pensamiento nacional (Ed. Cultura et Labor, Bs. As., 1987.), Alberto Buela no duda en decir que “… la idea de comunidad enuncia en su prístino sentido la participación de los hombres que la componen en su núcleo aglutinado de valores (bienes) que les son comunes. En tanto que la sociedad enuncia más bien la aceptación por sus miembros, de un conjunto de normas (deberes) que regulan las relaciones entre ellos.”

Cuando la hipocresía comienza a ser de muy mala calidad, es hora de comenzar a decir la verdad. Bertol Brecht


En consecuencia, la idea de comunidad presupone la existencia de bienes o valores comunes a sus miembros; la vinculación, entonces, de éstos es existencial. Por el contrario, la idea de sociedad, pertenece a la del contrato social, en la medida en que (de nuevo Weber) ésta se limita a lo prescrito por las normas  legales. Así, el concepto de sociedad está relacionado con la idea de humanidad civilizada y progresista, tal y como lo pregonaron los pensadores del Iluminismo: Denis Diderot, Montesquieu, Kant, Herder, Goethe y Schiller, entre muchos otros. Es factible entender, por lo tanto, que el concepto de comunidad tiene que ver con la unión orgánica y natural del hombre con su patria, quizás con sus propias y naturales raíces.





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